A new project: Who were the victims of the National Socialists?

The aim of our new project is to enable young people to gain a deeper understanding of the roots of discrimination in the present. They will gain this understanding by exploring the key question, “Who were the victims of the Nazis?”. To achieve this, we will be working with EuroClio to design, develop and test local youth-oriented history projects in six countries. Because the best chance to realise a future that lives up to the promise of democracy and human rights is education.
EuroClio’s mission is to inspire and empower educators to engage learners in innovative and responsible teaching of history and civics. EuroClio’s vision is that all learners will become more responsible and engaged citizens through engaging in history and civic education for mutual understanding and peace.
In developing the project, we will consult representatives and members of the Jewish community, the LGBTIQ community, Roma, Sinti and Travellers, and people with disabilities on the design of the toolkit and seek advice from academics who specialise in the history of these groups during the Nazi period. For each of these groups there will be a councillor representing that group.
The project is funded under the NS Injustice Education Agenda, an initiative of the Federal Ministry of Finance (BNF) and the Foundation EVZ – Remembrance, Responsibility and Future, which was launched in response to the worrying increase in anti-Semitism, antiziganism, racism and LGBTIQ hostility.
The next steps will be to work with the project advisors and partners on staffing the project. Once we are done with that, we will bring all team members together for a working meeting early next year at the Max Mannheimer Study Centre in Dachau.
Are you interested in this new EuroClio project or do you think you can help us achieve the project outcomes? Please send an email to bildung@mmsz-dachau.de.

Memorial sites commemorating Nazi crimes in Germany call for the defence of democracy

As sites of public debate about past crimes, memorial sites commemorating the victims of Nazi atrocities fulfil an important educational task for the present era. Their work follows the obligation of our Constitution that was derived from the experiences of the Nazi era: “Human dignity shall be inviolable. To respect and protect it shall be the duty of all state authority” (Article 1 of the German Basic Law).

Learning from the history of Nazi crimes also means recognising in time the dangers that threaten to permanently weaken our open society. We know from 20th century European history that the establishment of democracies with standards like the German Basic Law, human rights enshrined in European and international law, the protection of minorities, the equality of all humans before the law, the rule of law and the division of powers were hard won and that they need to be protected and developed on an ongoing basis.

Attitudes, opinions and language that imply a rejection of the fundamental lessons drawn from the Nazi past are establishing themselves more openly within society. We are concerned about the following:

  • the strengthening of right-wing populist and authoritarian nationalist movements and parties,
  • a widespread rejection of people in need and a questioning and weakening of the right to seek asylum,
  • attacks on fundamental and human rights,
  • an increase in racism, anti-Semitism and other forms of group-focused enmity,
  • an accompanying devaluation of democracy and diversity.

Additionally, the importance of remembering the crimes of the Nazi era as a fundamental guide for present-day German society is being attacked by an openly-expressed historical revisionism  that aims to replace it with a nationalist self-image.

We are opposing these current developments through our daily work with historical and civic education. However, these developments also require political and civic action. We therefore call on the various players in politics and society to preserve the knowledge of historical experiences with exclusionary societies, such as National Socialism, for the present and to stand up for the defence of universal fundamental and human rights.

Adopted at the 7th Federal Memorial Site Conference (Bundesweite Gedenkstättenkonferenz) on 13/12/2018

Obituary for Bernard Marks

Obituary for Bernard Marks

“Wishing you a very happy holiday and a great New Year 2019. Cheers Bernie.”

Upon receiving Season’s Greetings from Bernard Marks we had little inkling that these would be the last words we would share. Just a few days later, on December 28 2018, Bernard died. Together we had just forged plans for his next visit to the Max Mannheimer Study Center. News of his sudden passing shocked us all the more.

Bernard Marks in his prisoners‘ clothing with his father Joseph shortly after the liberation

For the last ten years Bernard Marks had been a regular guest at the Max Mannheimer Study Center and reached out to over 600 youths in his moving contemporary witness talks, giving a vivid account of his persecution at the hands of the Nazis. Born in 1932 as Ber Makowski into a middle-class merchant family in Łódź, following the German occupation of Poland the family was forced to move into the Łódź ghetto (Litzmannstadt) in 1940. His wealth of personal memories of this time mirrored the harsh everyday life in the ghetto from a child’s perspective. After the ghetto was disbanded, the family was deported to Auschwitz in 1944, where his mother Laja and younger brother Abraham were murdered immediately upon arrival. “My father, my angel” was something he often said, referring to how his father Josef Makowski forward dated the birthday of his son Ber by five years, thus saving him from imminent death. He was now considered old enough to work and together with his father he was deported from Auschwitz to Kaufering, where in the Dachau subcamp complex he was forced to work for the German armaments industry under cruel and appalling conditions. After spending five years of his childhood in captivity, he – aged just 13 – was liberated by American troops on April 27 1945. Until his emigration in 1947, Bernard Marks – who changed his name once he arrived in the U.S. – attended various schools in Landsberg, Feldafing and Freimann, as well as spending some time in the DP children’s center run by the UNRRA at Prien on Chiemsee. In his presentations, which he augmented with striking photo and video material, he not only gave an account of historical events but also reflected on the difficulties in dealing with the past, warned against the dangers of forgetting, and motivated the younger generation to take a stand against racism, antisemitism, and xenophobia while doing what they can to foster peaceful and tolerant cooperation with one another.

Bernard Marks in front of his photographic portrait in the Max Mannheimer House

In the U.S. Bernard Marks studied engineering and worked for many years in the aeronautics industry before setting up business as a consultant on sustainable energy. He continued to advise companies and universities worldwide and offer his expertise until an advanced age. Bernard Marks remained extremely active to the end politically as well, bravely expressing his views on social and political developments in his home state of California. He was particularly concerned about the situation of minorities, with his own personal story of persecution creating a bond with their plight. Shocked at the rigid implementation of American immigration policy, at a forum he candidly told representatives of police and customs enforcement agencies, including the then director of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, “history is not on your side!” This forthright statement caught the attention of many on the internet, where he then became a prominent figure, his contribution to the debate shared extensively on social media and picked up by the international press.



Teamexcursion to Kaufering with Bernard Marks

Bernard Marks was a sociable and big-hearted person who was open to others and always approachable. He found some level of interaction and communication with almost everyone he met. His family was always close to his heart and he cultivated many friendships around the world. In Sacramento he was a highly-respected member of the Jewish congregation of B’nai Israel, participating in the life of the community for decades and singing in the choir right up until his death.

In 2008 Bernard Marks initiated in memory of his deceased wife the “Eleanor J. Marks Holocaust Project”, an essay competition for students worldwide that invites them to write a piece on different topics concerned with the Nazi persecution of the Jews. He coordinated the competition personally and did all that he could – investing both much time and money – to ensure that the project was a success.

Bernard Marks with Nina Ritz 2016

For the staff at the Max Mannheimer Study Center, “Bernie” was not only a valued supporter of our work but also a good friend. During his visits to Dachau we also spent much leisure time with him. Open-minded and outgoing, he was ready for any undertaking: an evening meal celebrating the Shabbat, excursions into the countryside with coffee and apple strudel, visits to museums and theme parks. With a wide range of interests, full of energy, unafraid to speak his mind and possessing a good sense of humor, Bernie Marks was a wonderful companion – his passing is a huge loss and he will be very sorely missed.